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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

“五位一体”总体布局:经济建设、政治建设、文化建设、社会建设、生态文明建设

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普华永道的校园和学校雇佣主管安德鲁?巴杰里(Andrew Bargery)表示,Teach First的毕业生出类拔萃:“他们已经在专业环境下工作过,拥有专业成熟度,并擅长交际。”
Summly对这一难题的解决方式是创建文章的“快照”,比起阅读整篇文章,该功能可提高读者的浏览速度。尽管应用将关闭,但达洛伊西奥的技术将整合进雅虎的移动应用。
Angela Merkel's salary as German chancellor is set at 218,400 euros a year ($242,000). The chancellor got a 2% pay rise at the beginning of March, and will get another 2% next February.

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

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I loved his list (hat tip to him), but I thought I’d elaborate on what I believe makes for an effective boss or manager。
vi
Rank: 5

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

尽管这笔节省下来的钱目前看来相当可观,但其实远不够填补随之而来的不断升高的患病率所增加的社会负担的窟窿。
The diplomatic row began when Ankara’s foreign minister was denied entry to the Netherlands on Saturday for a campaign rally in favour of Mr Erdogan’s constitutional reforms. Armed Dutch police also intercepted another Turkish minister, Fatma Betul Sayan Kaya, on her way to the rally in Rotterdam and escorted her back to the German border.
谷歌英国的搜索结果分为热门趋势搜索榜和搜索次数排行榜。

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • The first drone can be traced back to 1916 when British inventor Archibald Low designed and flew the first unmanned radio-controlled vehicle. The drone was made to counterattack German Zeppelin airships, and it also carried out ground attacks during World War I. It was made with wood and tin, its wings taken from the lower wing of another biplane. Overall, the drone was somewhat unsuccessful because the noise from its engine interfered with its radio. The Sopwith Aircraft Company also tried making a drone in 1916. They placed the radio equipment at the tail so that the engine would not interfere with its signal, but their drone never flew as it was damaged in an accident on the ground. Low would try flying his drone again in 1917 when he flew it in front of some senior military officers. It was launched from the back of a lorry and flew for some time before crashing due to engine failure, almost killing the military officers present.
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  • 安联(Allianz)每4年会举办一次公司内部的国际奥林匹克运动会。所有运动员费用统一由公司负担,届时还有开幕式。2010年的“奥运会”在布达佩斯举办,有超过70个国家的运动员参与。
  • 解析:卫浴行业爆发价格战的两大“元凶”
  • 建筑节能催生绿色建材产品大发展
  • 节目34 歌曲《家人》,谭晶
    Although it looked like the mobile patent wars might cool off after several settlements late in 2014, this year kicked off with a skirmish between Apple and Ericsson over patent royalties related to wireless communications. BlackBerry used to be pretty litigious: It even took on celebrity Ryan Seacrest over its keyboard! But these days it is more focused on trying to convince smartphone buyers that its technology is cool again. Or at least relevant.

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 警惕智慧养老“玩概念”“玩噱头”增加负担, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

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Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

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Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • The memes were shared as part of a private Facebook chat where admitted students in the class of 2021 shared edgy jokes as part of a "just-because-we-got-into-Harvard-doesn't-mean-we-can't-have-fun kind of thing", an admitted student told the Harvard Crimson.
    property
  • 该声明称,EPIC绝不容忍任何人的欺骗或者侵犯版权的行为,不管他的年龄有多大。
    Chinese cellphone maker giant Huawei expects its smartphone shipments to grow 29 percent year-on-year to reach 139 million in 2016, compared with an estimated global average shipment growth of 0.6 percent.
    “他还是抽雪茄的,他抽很多、很多雪茄。”
    'What I was trying to do was wrap myself in his mantle and write a book that would be worthy of him.'
    马修?麦康纳(Matthew McConaughey)和贾里德?莱托(Jared Leto) 均凭在剧情片《达拉斯买家俱乐部》(Dallas Buyers Club)中的真实演绎荣获金球奖,该片讲述了一群德克萨斯人向艾滋病病毒发起勇敢抗争的故事。获九次金球奖提名的莱昂纳多?迪卡普里奥(Leonardo DiCaprio)因在《华尔街之狼》(The Wolf of Wall Street)的出色表现第二次摘得最佳男演员桂冠。他在发表获奖感言时感谢了影片导演马丁?斯科塞斯(Martin Scorsese)对他的指导(该片是两人第五次合作),并感谢他“允许自己跟着他拍下了这部电影”。

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 反腐刺破高档酒店泡沫:畸形需求伪繁荣难长久
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 深圳银行普遍收紧房贷 二手房成交量受影响较小

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

statement
他说:“黄金披萨奢华至极。如果你想享受一顿奢侈大餐,那么这份披萨就是为你准备的。”
But back to TextPride. Wray and O’Brien saw the way users eagerly engaged with their branded emojis, and believed advertisers appreciated the convenience of using one vendor to get many different messaging apps. But they realized that that was only half of the business. For certain established brands like sports teams, people will pay for stickers. But other, unknown brands would pay just to be included.
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尼泊尔的最佳旅行时间在今年的1月份到5月份。届时一定要去该国的加德满都谷底,该地区是尼泊尔的政治文化中心,同时也是世界遗产的集中地区,建筑风格多种多样,文化气息十分浓郁。此外,南部地区的奇旺国家公园也是必去之地,许多诸如印度犀牛和孟加拉虎等罕见野生动物都聚居在此地。
谎言1:不是我!说谎原因:有些事情不值得我们去邀功。
5.高效决策者

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • vi
  • 回看:2016家居建材行业资本“浮世绘”
  • 用走私野生动物制成的商品到哪里去了?
    On 2 March, the North's state-run website Uriminzokkiri warned that Pyongyang would respond to any balloon launches with "not just a few shots of gunfire but cannons or missiles".
  • 天津生态城入选“无废城市”建设试点
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 韩孟杰强调,由于处于性活跃期,容易受到外界的影响,发生不安全的性行为,所以大学生感染的风险还是存在的。
    出演《美国队长3:英雄决裂》的斯嘉丽-约翰逊排名第三,收入为2500万美元,比去年下降了近30%。
  • 7. 《出局:禁止接触》(Out 1: Noli Me Tangere),导演:雅克·里维特(Jacques Rivette)。
    Julia Hartz
  • 总的来说,在选择就读EMBA的原因中,创业排在最末(10分中得5.5分)。学员的主要动机是学习管理(9.1分)、拓宽人脉(8.3分)及增加收入(8.1分)。
    第10、11题,选0得4分,选1得3分,选2得2分,选3得1分,选4得0分。
  • 莱昂纳多凭借他在《荒野猎人》中的演出斩获最佳男演员奖项,打败了埃迪雷德梅尼等劲敌。埃迪凭借在《丹麦女孩》中的演出获得金球奖提名。坊间盛传小李子有望在今年夺得他人生中第一座奥斯卡奖杯。
    多年来,西方排放量的缓慢减少,被东方排放量的日益增加所抵消。2013年,这种趋势仍在继续。中国的排放量增加了4.2%,印度增加了5.1%。中印两国一直在以极快的速度修建火力发电厂。
    13. Even Better In October, The Los Angeles Times reported that the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission was investigating gender discrimination in the industry, just as the American Civil Liberties Union requested state and federal agencies do after it conducted its own inquiry.
  • 内衣秀以马戏表演开始,包括杂技,吞剑和踩高跷。然后贾斯汀比伯,蕾哈娜和布鲁斯马斯登场。
    Sohmers表示:“我曾经先后三次申请加入麻省理工学院研究室。我第一次申请的时候是14岁,那时我的父母并不太支持我。但是后来他们发现我在高中里学习并不快乐。于是他们开始慢慢理解了我的想法。现在他们对我的工作非常支持。”在加入麻省理工学院研究室之后,Sohmers终于找到了属于自己的天地。如今已经17岁的Sohmers表示,自己并不后悔放弃学业,进行创业。他表示:“即使我无法改变世界,也会收获一些其他的东西。人们在讨论上学和创业的时候,总是顾虑太多。但是企业是在研究者眼中,你的学历高低并不重要,重要的是你的能力。”
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 北京市委书记蔡奇在通州区调研:高质量推动城市副中心规划建设 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

天津建设用地 节约集约利用水平居全国前列

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

发改委:2019年一季度房地产投资仍将保持较快增长

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

警惕:家中水管或成健康隐形杀手 暗藏三大污染

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

继拍卖房产、公车后 淘宝网上又开卖“坏账”

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • The Aftermath of Zika Virus
  • The lyrics are stupid, but who cares? Tom Jones sings like nobody's business, and pounds the theme to Thunderball out with a silky energy. It's powerful but alluring. This is the sort of song you imagine Bond would play on a jukebox when he's about to seduce you. There are better James Bond theme songs, but none from a male singer. Tom Jones and James Bond probably go out for dry martinis together all the time. They're the perfect pair.
  • 十里河乡政府回应家居建材市场将搬迁传闻

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 不是因为我乐意看到一部精彩的电视剧剧终——如今已被公认为电视剧的黄金时代,而它正是这个时代的先驱。
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 普斯·格洛(Pussy Galore)在本书中回归,这也是首次有邦女郎在邦德身边昙花一现后,拥有了自己的故事线。
    It organized two large-scale inspections last year, involving more than 5,300 batches of imported consumer goods, such as air purifiers, car brake blocks, household electrical appliances and clothes, with more than 1,500 found to be substandard, Han said.
    美国选举人团制度已经在两方面失效。
  • Private investment for the year ended October was up 2.9 per cent, up 0.4 percentage points, while state investment dropped 1.1 percentage points to 20.5 per cent.

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • What? Hasn't his firm made enough money off Bernanke's cheap money printing? So he's blaming 'lower growth on fiscal austerity, ' even as Bernanke keeps blowing up the Fed's balance-sheet bubble by trillions under the delusion he's America's savior because our dysfunctional Congress failed?
  • 日投行为中国房产市场支招 避免重蹈泡沫覆辙
  • 不会。随着美联储收紧货币政策并扩大美国与日本的利率差,2018年日本央行的日子会更不好过。但是日本央行行长黑田东彦(Haruhiko Kuroda)已决心只会因一件事而上调利率,那就是通胀。如果通胀开始加速,日本央行可能会让收益率曲线略微上扬,但到2018年年底时日本实际利率不会高于年初时的水平。

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 半数以上大房企有望完成全年销售目标
  • Household substance abuse
  • 温州万全将建国际家居直销中心
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

五一楼市冷热不均 一线楼市出现“速冻模式”

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 财政部:前8月国有土地使用权出让收入37009亿元 同比增长36.4%
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 江湛铁路开通运营 粤西进入高铁时代
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

单词credit 联想记忆:

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

n. 游艇,快艇 vi. 驾快艇
Productivity is the name of the game for entrepreneurs. The good news is that there are thousands of amazing software applications out there, designed to make your life easier. The bad news is that you don’t have time to try thousands of software applications. Which ones are worth your time?
时间:2011-11-03 编辑:Lily
单词accurate 联想记忆:
Managers are expected to manage the people below them on the corporate hierarchy, but the best managers also have ways of managing their superiors and coworkers on behalf of their team. Many times this means effective communication, managing expectations, and requesting help in a timely manner。
勉强会。民主党将在11月中期选举中重新赢得对众议院的控制权。尽管他们要到2019年1月才能掌控众议院,但他们将马上开始为众议院司法委员会(House Judiciary)启动弹劾做文书方面的准备。特朗普将称此举为“政治迫害”。但在特朗普怪诞的总统任期又持续了一年之后,民主党将几乎不可避免地展开造势活动,誓要让特朗普承担责任。在此之前,无论罗伯特米勒(Robert Mueller)的调查发现了什么,都不可能让足够多的共和党人倒戈反对特朗普。
巴韦贾同意这一结论,他指出,韩国和另一个大宗商品净进口国印度,都是成品油的出口国。以美元计算,这些成品油的价值今年应会上升。
在接下来的几个月里,金州勇士就恢复正常了。因为凯文·杜兰特受伤,让斯蒂芬·库里重新成为那个无所不能的斯蒂芬·库里,当凯文·杜兰特重返球队的时候,球队也在他们这两个MVP之间找到了平衡。于是季后赛横扫西部的可怕爆发显然可以预料得到。开拓者被打的毫无还手之力,爵士拼尽全力但仍无法获得一场比赛。本来马刺很有可能拿下一场比赛,在那场比赛中他们一度领先20分,然后,当扎扎帕楚里亚垫了一只脚之后,科怀·伦纳德便受伤了,结果就是这样。
5. Smart belt
两种颜色!也许它听起来不算重大变革,但一切都是相互关联的。要知道:这不是因为优柔寡断,而是因为社会进步。不管怎样,这是潘通的立场。

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

国家统计局:中国居民收入差距持续缩小

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • adj. 最高的,至上的,极度的
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 贝恩公司(Bain & Company)也正处于变革之中,去年11月该公司宣布曼尼马塞达(Manny Maceda)将于2018年3月成为其全球领导人,从鲍勃博切克(Bob Bechek)手中接管这家总部位于波士顿的咨询机构;马塞达将是该公司首位亚洲血统的掌门人。专家们表示,马塞达可能推动该公司开拓新的专长领域,并摆脱业务多而不精的名声。
  • 欠款数十万 却将价值百余万房屋“卖”80万 法院: 不许!
  • 我们完全有能力扩大就业,不会也不允许出现大规模群体性失业。
  • 北京发布住房和城乡建设发展白皮书 去年超额完成保障房建设和棚户区改造任务
  • 1Switzerland

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 前4月房地产开发投资34217亿 业内:小阳春难成盛夏
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • 《大唐荣耀》
  • 发脾气大奖

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

川中规模最大全品类建材家具交易中心落户遂宁

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